Breakdown of Campbell readings and essential knowledge

Domain 1: Evolution

All the reading: Chapters 22.1-22.3, 23.1-23.4, 24.1-24.3, 25.1-25.4, 26.1-26.5 (basically Chapters 22-26, with 26.6 being extra material)

I’m listing the Essential Knowledge so you can keep tabs on what you should be learning in this unit. I would even copy these, print them out, and paste into your notebook so you can write information on each in your book for further review. The AP people are trying to make the Biology exam less about memorizing reams of information and more about being able to analyze data and make conclusions from presented information; hopefully knowing what you “must” know will help narrow down the breadth of the material.

22.2, 23.1
• Graphical analysis of allele frequencies in a population
• Application of the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium equation

“23.2, 23.4
• Flowering time in relation to global climate change
• Peppered moth
• Sickle cell Anemia
• DDT resistance in insects
• Artificial selection
• Loss of genetic diversity within a crop species
• Overuse of antibiotics”

23.3, 22.3, 26.2
• Graphical analyses of allele frequencies in a population
• Analysis of sequence data sets
• Analysis of phylogenetic trees
• Construction of phylogenetic trees based on
Sequence data”

“26.1, 26.3, 26.4, 26.5
• Cytoskeleton (a network of structural proteins that facilitate cell movement, morphological integrity and organelle transport)
• Membrane-bound organelles (mitochondria
and/or chloroplasts)
• Linear chromosomes
• Endomembrane systems, including the nuclear
Envelope”

25.1, 25.2, , 25.3
• Number of heart chambers in animals
• Opposable thumbs
• Absence of legs in some sea mammals”

“24.2, 24.3, 26.2
• Five major extinctions
• Human impact on ecosystems and species extinction rates”

“1.d.1 There are several hypotheses about the natural origin of life on Earth, each with supporting scientific evidence.
4.1,
26.1,26.3, 26.4, 26.5
No illustrative examples listed in Curriculum
Framework”

“1.d.2 Scientific evidence from many different disciplines supports models of the origin of life.
26.6
No illustrative examples listed in Curriculum
Framework”

Domain 2: Matter

All the reading: Chapters 3.1 – 3.3, 4.1-4.2, all of chapter 5, 6. and 7, and 19.5

I’m listing the Essential Knowledge so you can keep tabs on what you should be learning in this unit. I would even copy these, print them out, and paste into your notebook so you can write information on each in your book for further review. The AP people are trying to make the Biology exam less about memorizing reams of information and more about being able to analyze data and make conclusions from presented information; hopefully knowing what you “must” know will help narrow down the breadth of the material.

EK 2.A.3    “2.a.3 Organisms must exchange matter with the environment to grow,
reproduce, and maintain organization.
3.1, 3.2, 3.3
4.1, 4.2
6.2
• Cohesion
• Adhesion
• High specific heat capacity
• Universal solvent supports reactions
• Heat of vaporization
• Heat of fusion
• Water’s thermal conductivity
• Root hairs
• Cells of the alveoli
• Cells of the villi
• Microvilli”


EK 4.A.1  The subcomponents of biological molecules
and their sequence determine the properties of that molecule.
5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5
No illustrative examples listed in Curriculum
Framework.”

EK 4.C.1    “4.C.1: Variation in molecular units provides cells with a wider range of functions.
5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5
19.5
• Different types of phospholipids in cell membranes
• Different types of hemoglobin
• MHC proteins
• Chlorophylls
• Molecular diversity of antibodies in response to an antigen
• The antifreeze gene in fish”

 

EK 2.B.1    “2.b.1 Cell membranes are selectively permeable due to their structure.
7.1, 7.2
No illustrative examples listed in Curriculum
Framework.”

EK 2.B.2    2.b.2 Growth and dynamic homeostasis are maintained by the constant movement of molecules across membranes.

EK 2.B.3    “2.b.3 Eukaryotic cells maintain internal membranes that partition the cell into specialized regions.
6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5
• Endoplasmic reticulum
• Mitochondria
• Chloroplasts
• Golgi
• Nuclear envelope”
EK 4.A.2    “4.A.2: The structure and function of subcellular
components, and their interactions, provide essential cellular processes.
6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5
No illustrative examples listed in Curriculum
Framework.”

Domain 2, Part 2: Energy

All the reading:
Chapter 5, 19.5, Chapter 8, Chapter 9, Chapter 10, Chapter 40 (Basic Principles of Animal Form and Function), 51.3 ((Environment, via genetics, influences behavior), 52.3 (Exponential model describes perfect pop. growth), 52.4 (Logistic growth model), 53.2 (Dominant and keystone species), 54.1(Ecosystem ecology – energy flow and cycling), 54.3(Energy transfer between trophic levels).

 

Essential Knowledge 4.C.1: Variation in molecular units provides cells with a wider range of functions.

Readings in Campbell’s: 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5, 19.5

Illustrative examples of important concepts:
• Different types of phospholipids in cell membranes
• Different types of hemoglobin
• MHC proteins
• Chlorophylls
• Molecular diversity of antibodies in response to an antigen
• The antifreeze gene in fish”

Essential Knowledge 2.a.1 All living systems require constant input of free energy.

Readings in Campbell’s: 8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 9.1- 9.5, 10.1, 10.2, 10.3, 40.1, 40.2, 40.3, 40.4, 40.5, 51.3, 52.3, 52.4, 53.2 ,54.1, 54.3

Illustrative examples of important concepts:
• Krebs cycle
• Glycolysis
• Calvin cycle
• Fermentation
• Endothermy (the use of thermal energy generated by metabolism to maintain homeostatic body temperatures)
• Ectothermy (the use of external thermal energy to help regulate and maintain body temperature)
• Seasonal reproduction in animals and plants
• Life-history strategy (biennial plants and reproductive diapause)
• Change in the producer level can affect the number and size of other trophic levels
• Change in energy resources levels such as sunlight can affect the number and size of the trophic levels”

 

Essential Knowledge 4.B.1: Interactions between molecules affect their structure and function.

Readings in Campbell’s: 5.4, 8.4, 8.5

No illustrative examples listed in Curriculum
Framework.”

Essential Knowledge 2.a.2 Organisms capture and store free energy for use in biological processes.
Readings in Campbell’s: 9.1-9.5, 10.1, 10.2, 10.3
Illustrative examples of important concepts:
• NADP+ in photosynthesis
• Oxygen in cellular respiration”

Domain 3: Information

 

Summary of all the reading: Summary of all the readings:  5.5, 12.1-12.3 (Cell Cycle), 13.1-13.4 (Meiosis), 14.1 – 14.4 (Mendel and Gene Idea), Chapter 15 (Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance),  Chapter 16 (Molecular Basis of Inheritance), 17.1-17.4, plus 17.7 (From Gene to Protein), 18.1, 18.3, 18.4 (Genetics of Viruses and Bacteria), 19.2, 20.1-20.3 (DNA Technology), 23.4 (Natural Selection)

 

Readings for Domain 3: Information

EK 3.A.1: DNA, and in some cases RNA, is the primary
source of heritable information.

Campbell’s: 5.5, 27.1, Chapter 16, , 17.1, 17.2, 17.3, 17.4, 18.1, 20.1, 20.2, 20.3

Illustrative examples of important concepts:
• Addition of a poly-A tail
• Addition of a GTP cap
• Excision of introns
• Enzymatic reactions
• Transport by proteins
• Synthesis
• Degradation
• Electrophoresis
• Plasmid-based transformation
• Restriction enzyme analysis of DNA
• Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
• Genetically modified foods
• Transgenic animals
• Cloned animals
• Pharmaceuticals, such as human insulin or factor X”

EK 3.C.1 Changes in genotype can result in changes in phenotype.

Campbell’s 15.4, 16.2, 17.7, 23.4 (Natural Selection)

Illustrative examples of important concepts:
• Antibiotic resistance mutations
• Pesticide resistance mutations
• Sickle cell disorder and heterozygote advantage”

EK 3.A.2 In eukaryotes, heritable information is passed to the next generation via processes that include the cell cycle and mitosis, or meiosis plus fertilization.

Campbell’s 12.1, 12.2, 12.3, 13.1, 13.2, 13.3

Illustrative examples of important concepts:’
• Mitosis-promoting factor (MPF)
• Action of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)
• Cancer results from disruptions in cell cycle control”

“3.C.2 Biological systems have multiple processes that increase genetic variation.
Campbell’s 18.3, 13.4
No illustrative examples listed in Curriculum
Framework”

 

“3.C.3 Viral replication results in genetic variation, and viral infection can introduce genetic variation into the hosts.
Campbell’s 18.1

Illustrative examples of important concepts:
• Transduction in bacteria
• Transposons present in incoming DNA”

“3.A.3 The chromosomal basis of inheritance provides an understanding of the pattern of passage (transmission) of genes from parent to offspring

Campbell’s 14.1, 14.2, 14.3, 14.4

Illustrative examples of important concepts:
• Sickle cell anemia
• Tay-Sachs disease
• Huntington’s disease
• X-linked color blindness
• Trisomy 21/Down syndrome
• Klinefelter’s syndrome
• Reproduction issues
• Civic issues such as ownership of genetic information, privacy, historical contexts, etc.”

“3.A.4 The inheritance pattern of many traits cannot be explained by simple Mendelian genetics.

Campbell’s 15.1, 15.2, 15.3, 15.5

Illustrative examples of important concepts:
• Sex-linked genes reside on sex chromosomes (X in humans)
• In mammals and flies, the Y chromosome is very small and carries few genes
• In mammals and flies, females are XX and males are XY; as such, X-linked recessive traits are always expressed in males
• Some traits are sex limited, and expression depends on the sex of the individual, such as milk production in female mammals and pattern baldness in males”

“3.B.1 Gene regulation results in differential gene expression, leading to cell specialization.
Campbell’s 18.4, 19.2

Illustrative examples of important concepts:
• Promoters
• Terminators
• Enhancers”

“4.C.2: Environmental factors influence the expression of the genotype in an organism.

Readings in Campbell’s 14.3

Illustrative examples of important concepts:
• Height and weight in humans
• Flower color based on soil pH
• Seasonal fur color in arctic animals
• Sex determination in reptiles
• Density of plant hairs as a function of herbivory
• Effect of adding lactose to a Lac + bacterial culture
• Effect of increased UV on melanin production in animals
• Presence of the opposite mating type on pheromones production in yeast and other fungi
• Darker fur in cooler regions of the body in certain mammal species
• Alterations in timing of flowering due to climate changes”

Domain 4, part 1: Regulation

 

Summary of readings:

6.4, Chapter 11, 18.4, 19.2, 21.2, , 24.1, 38.1-38.2 (Angiospermn reproduction and biotechnology), 39.2-39.3, 39.5, Chapter 40 (Animal Form and Function), Chapter 43 (Immune System),  48.1-48.5 (Nervous System), 51.2, 51.3 (Behavioral ecology), 53.1, 55.1 (Human activities)

Please note that the summary is same for Regulation and Communication, but the breakdown will show which section has which readings.

Essential Knowledge: 2.c.1 Organisms use feedback mechanisms to maintain their internal environments and respond to external environmental changes.

Campbell’s Reading: 40.2, 40.4, 40.5

Illustrative examples:
• Operons in gene regulation
• Temperature regulation in animals
• Plant responses to water limitations
• Lactation in mammals
• Onset of labor in childbirth
• Ripening of fruit
• Diabetes mellitus in response to decreased insulin
• Dehydration in response to decreased antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
• Graves’ disease (hyperthyroidism)
• Blood clotting”

Essential Knowledge: 2.C.2 Organisms respond to changes in their external environments.

Campbell’s Reading: 40.5

Illustrative examples:
• Photoperiodism and phototropism in plants
• Hibernation and migration in animals
• Taxis and kinesis in animals
• Chemotaxis in bacteria, sexual reproduction in fungi
• Nocturnal and diurnal activity: circadian rhythms
• Shivering and sweating in humans”

Essential Knowledge: 2.E.3: Timing and coordination of behavior are regulated by various mechanisms and are important in natural selection.

Campbell’s Reading: 39.2, 39.3, 51.2, 53.1

Illustrative examples:
• Availability of resources leading to fruiting body formation in fungi and certain types of bacteria
• Niche and resource partitioning
• Mutualistic relationships (lichens; bacteria in digestive tracts of animals; and mycorrhizae)
• Biology of pollination
• Hibernation
• Estivation
• Migration
• Courtship”

 

Essential Knowledge: 3.E.1. Individuals can act on information and communicate it to others.

Campbell’s Reading: 51.2, 51.3

Illustrative examples:
· Fight or flight response
· Predator warnings
· Protection of young
· Plant-plant interactions due to herbivory
· Avoidance responses
• Herbivory responses
• Territorial marking in mammals
• Coloration in flowers
• Bee dances
• Birds songs
• Territorial marking in mammals
• Pack behavior in animals
• Herd, flock, and schooling behavior in animals
• Predator warning
• Colony and swarming behavior in insects
• Coloration
• Parent and offspring interactions
• Migration patterns
• Courtship and mating behaviors
• Foraging in bees and other animals
• Avoidance behavior to electric fences, poisons, or traps”

Domain 4, part 2: Communication

 

Summary of all the reading: see entry above for Part 1: Regulation.

Essential Knowledge: 3.B.2 A variety of intercellular and intracellular signal transmissions mediate gene expression.

Campbell’s Reading: 11.1, 11.4, 18.4, 19.2, 21.2
Illustrative examples:
• Cytokines regulate gene expression to allow for cell replication and division
• Mating pheromones in yeast trigger mating gene expression
• Levels of cAMP regulate metabolic gene expression in bacteria
• Expression of the SRY gene triggers the male sexual development pathway in animals
• Ethylene levels cause changes in the production of different enzymes, allowing fruits to ripen
• Seed germination and gibberellin
• Mating pheromones in yeast trigger mating genes expression and sexual reproduction
• Morphogens stimulate cell differentiation and development
• Changes in p53 activity can result in cancer
• HOX genes and their role in development”

Essential Knowledge: 3.D.1 Cell communication processes share common features that reflect a shared evolutionary history.

Campbell’s Reading:  11.1, 11.2
Illustrative examples:
• Use of chemical messengers by microbes to communicate with other nearby cells and to regulate specific pathways in response to population density (quorum sensing)
• Use of pheromones to trigger reproduction and developmental pathways
• Response to external signals by bacteria that influences cell movement
• Epinephrine stimulation of glycogen breakdown in mammals
• Temperature determination of sex in some vertebrate organisms
• DNA repair mechanisms”

Essential Knowledge: 3.D.2 Cells communicate with each other through direct contact with other cells or from a distance via chemical signaling.

Campbell’s Reading:  11.1, 11.2
Illustrative examples:
• Immune cells interact by cell-cell contact, antigen-presenting cells (APCs), helper T-cells. and killer T-cells. [See also 2.D.4]
• Plasmodesmata between plant cells that allow material to be transported from cell to cell
• Neurotransmitters
• Plant immune response
• Quorum sensing in bacteria
• Morphogens in embryonic development
• Insulin
• Human growth hormone
• Thyroid hormones
• Testosterone
• Estrogen”

Essential Knowledge: 3.D.3. Signal transduction pathways link signal reception with cellular response.

Campbell’s Reading:  11.3
Illustrative examples:
• G-protein linked receptors
• Ligand-gated ion channels
• Receptor tyrosine kinases
• Ligand-gated ion channels
• Second messengers, such as cyclic GMP, cyclic AMP, calcium ions (Ca2+), and inositol triphosphate (IP3)”

Essential Knowledge: 3.D.4. Changes in signal transduction pathways can alter cellular response.

Campbell’s Reading:  11.4
Illustrative examples:
• Diabetes, heart disease, neurological disease, autoimmune disease, cancer, and cholera
• Effects of neurotoxins, poisons, and pesticides
• Drugs (Hypertensives, Anesthetics, Antihistamines, and Birth Control”

Essential Knowledge: 2.e.1 Timing and coordination of specific events are necessary for the normal development of an organism, and these events are regulated by a variety of mechanisms.

Campbell’s Reading:  19.2, 21.2, 38.1, 38.2
Illustrative examples:
• Morphogenesis of fingers and toes
• Immune function
• C. elegans development
• Flower Development

Essential Knowledge: 2.e.2 Timing and coordination of physiological events are regulated by multiple mechanisms.

Campbell’s Reading:  38.1, 38.2, 39.2, 39.3, 24.1, 11.1
Illustrative examples:
• Circadian rhythms, or the physiological cycle of about 24 hours that is present in all eukaryotes and persists even in the absence of external cues
• Diurnal/nocturnal and sleep/awake cycles
• Jet lag in humans
• Seasonal responses, such as hibernation, estivation, and migration
• Release and reaction to pheromones
• Visual displays in the reproductive cycle
• Fruiting body formation in fungi, slime molds, and certain types of bacteria
• Quorum sensing in bacteria”

Essential Knowledge: 4.A.3: Interactions between external stimuli and regulated gene expression result in specialization of cells, tissues and organs.

Campbell’s Reading:  21.2
No illustrative examples listed in Curriculum Framework.”

Essential Knowledge: 2.d.2 Homeostatic mechanisms reflect both common ancestry and divergence due to adaptation in different environments.

Campbell’s Reading:  40.4, 40.5, 55.1
Illustrative examples:
• Gas exchange in aquatic and terrestrial plants
• Digestive mechanisms in animals such as food
vacuoles, gastrovascular cavities, and one-way digestive systems
• Respiratory systems of aquatic and terrestrial animals
• Nitrogenous waste production and elimination in aquatic and terrestrial animals
• Excretory systems in flatworms, earthworms, and vertebrates
• Osmoregulation in bacteria, fish and protists
• Osmoregulation in aquatic and terrestrial plants
• Circulatory systems in fish, amphibians and mammals
• Thermoregulation in aquatic and terrestrial animals (countercurrent exchange mechanisms)”

Essential Knowledge: 2.d.3 Biological systems are affected by disruptions to their dynamic homeostasis.

Campbell’s Reading:  40.4, 40.5, 55.1
Illustrative examples:
• Physiological responses to toxic substances
• Dehydration
• Immunological responses to pathogens, toxins, and allergens
• Invasive and/or eruptive species
• Human impact
• Hurricanes, floods, earthquakes, volcanoes, and fires
• Water limitation
• Salination”

Essential Knowledge: 4.A.4: Organisms exhibit complex properties due tointeractions between their constituent parts.

Campbell’s Reading:  48.4
Illustrative examples:
• Stomach and small intestines
• Kidney and bladder
• Root, stem and leaf
• Respiratory and circulatory
• Nervous and muscular
• Plant vascular and leaf”

Essential Knowledge: 4.B.2: Cooperative interactions within organisms promote efficiency in the use of energy and matter.

Campbell’s Reading:  6.4, 40.1, 40.2
Illustrative examples:
• Exchange of gases
• Circulation of fluids
• Digestion of food
• Excretion of wastes
• Bacterial community in the rumen of animals
• Bacterial community in and around deep sea vents”

Essential Knowledge: 2.d.4 Plants and animals have a variety of chemical defenses against infections that affect dynamic homeostasis.

Campbell’s Reading:  39.5, 43.1, 43.2, 43.3, 43.4, 43.5
Illustrative examples:
• Invertebrate immune systems have nonspecific
response mechanisms, but they lack pathogen-specific defense responses
• Plant defenses against pathogens include
molecular recognition systems with systemic responses; infection triggers chemical responses that destroy infected and adjacent cells, thus localizing the effects
• Vertebrate immune systems have nonspecific
and nonheritable defense mechanisms against pathogens”

Essential Knowledge: 3.E.2. Animals have nervous systems that detect external and internal signals, transmit and integrate information, and produce responses.

Campbell’s Reading:  48.1, 48.2, 48.3, 48.4, 48.5
Illustrative examples:
• Acetylcholine
• Epinephrine
• Norepinephrine
• Dopamine
• Serotonin
• GABA
• Vision
• Hearing
• Muscle movement
• Abstract thought and emotions
• Neuro-hormone production
• Forebrain (cerebrum), midbrain (brainstem), and hindbrain (cerebellum)
• Right and left cerebral hemispheres”

Domain 5: Interactions:

 

Summary of all the reading:

 

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